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Ivan Asen and Peter laid the foundations of the Second Bulgarian Empire with its capital at Tarnovo.
The Ottomans completed their conquest of Bulgarian lands in 1393 when Tarnovo was sacked after a three-month siege and the Battle of Nicopolis which brought about the fall of the Vidin Tsardom in 1396.
Bulgaria then transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy.
Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative, and economic centralisation.
It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.
Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and mostly relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture.A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241).After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries.Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; it ranked as the most corrupt country in the European Union for 2018.The name Bulgaria is derived from the Bulgars, a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country.
This prevented Byzantine attempts at Hellenisation and created fertile ground for further revolt.