Dating loans money
The problem with this version of history, he suggests, is the lack of any supporting evidence.His research indicates that gift economies were common, at least at the beginnings of the first agrarian societies, when humans used elaborate credit systems.The psychological elements required for a barter system to exist and function are not only far simpler than those required for a simple monetary system, but every historical example of monetary systems requires and incorporates the basic psychological elements that make barter possible.It is very simple to trade a piece of meat for a piece of fruit (even a caveman can do it), but to create and use tools to make hash marks on a stick or piece of leather to represent that someone gave you a piece of meat and now you owe them a piece of meat is a far more complex set of thought processes requiring a knowledge of making tools, knowledge of crude numerical systems, etc..
The 20,000-year-old Ishango Bone – found near one of the sources of the Nile in the Democratic Republic of Congo – seems to use matched tally marks on the thigh bone of a baboon for correspondence counting.
There is no evidence, historical or contemporary, of a society in which barter is the main mode of exchange.
However, the general presumption that monetary systems evolved from barter systems persists because it is unreasonable to presume that monetary systems magically appeared.
For example, a farmer has to find someone who not only wants the grain he produced but who could also offer something in return that the farmer wants.
Finding people to barter with is a time-consuming process and this factor is most likely the main driving force in the creation of monetary systems – people seeking a way to stop wasting their time looking for someone to barter with.
While it may not be reasonable to conclude the most ancient tally sticks were used to keep accounting records in the monetary system sense of the term, their existence does show that "accounting" – keeping a written record of things counted – is far more ancient than many people assume.